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Understanding The Risk Factors Associated With Polio Vaccination Refusals In Pakistan

I am writing for a social medicine class. This paper is also my background paper for the research. My position is that for the people. I do not consider the people refusing polio vaccinations as illiterate, ignorant people. Rather, I believe they have valid reasons to refuse and these reasons should be understood and addressed by in-depth understanding of the social context.
I have to include the social theory too. The three social scientists that have relevant work and you should quote include, Paul Farmer, Arthur Kleinman, Merton ( Theory of unintended consequences).
The citation style is APA. Please follow it thoroughly.
https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/general_format.html

I have written my thesis statement which will give you a good start.

I have outlined how I would like the paper to be. Please follow that. Incase of any issues/concerns- please reach out! Make sure it is ABSOLUTELY PLAIGIASRISM FREE!

The page limit is 20 pages double spaced. I am also sending in what I have already written. You can take help from that and include parts of it after improving in the relevant sections. But do not simply copy paste!

Title: Understanding the risk factors associated with polio vaccination refusals in Rawalpindi, Pakistan
Thesis statement:
The policies and interventions designed to eradicate polio from Pakistan should shift their focus from only achieving quantitative targets of increased coverage to an in-depth understanding of the historical and socio-political aspects of the Pathan communities which shapes their decision to refuse or accept the polio vaccinations.

For help writing the bio-social analysis.



Outline:

Introduction
1. Vignette  Small, Vignette used as a literary device helping people to become emotionally invested in the topic- A composite of multiple people’s experience: Can be used as an illustrative tool. Use it in the beginning to introduce the topic. Try do be descriptive. Show don’t tell, try to illustrate.. not just sad and mad, describe what are they doing, feeling.. 1-1.5 page.) I have already shared two vignettes. You can use any of the two.

1. Central Thesis  Thesis statement. I have written that you can see scroll up pls
Overview of the thesis’s structure- A broad overview of the thesis structure in the form of paragraphs.


2. Overview of the thesis’s structure (can be a broad and general overview in the form of paragraphs or a few sentences/road map. Not necessarily chapter wise )
Background
1. Literature Reviews – share enough so that people with enough information to understand the argument
i. Literature on disease burdens. A general overview of disease burden in Pakistan. IMR, MMR, DALY , Life expectancy, under-5 mortality etc., polio, vaccine preventable disease
(pages-2 or more).
ii. Literature on Health Care Systems in Pakistan –current health care system of Pakistan. Contemporary + history. Briefly.

1. Community health care systems: briefly, just enough information then go to front line polio eradication campaigns

iii. Literature on Polio eradication campaigns in Pakistan. For this start from when the polio campaigns began in Pakistan, what used to happen and how have things changed.
What were the major road blocks for the polio campaign, strategies deployed.
Chronologically. Also talk about how different events have shaped the policy decisions about the polio campaigns, mention the April 2019 school incident too.
Challenges faced in Pakistan and where the country is standing now.
History of Polio in the Country ( can this be combined with lit review on polio eradication campaigns in Pakistan?)
Policy Approaches to Polio Interventions in the Country.
This can be more pages like 3 or so. Also, include how the polio program is structured. The organization structure etc.
2. Contextual Overviews briefly. Assume the reader doesn’t know about pakistan a lot.

This portion will be talking about Pakistan’s history briefly. Then more about the history of the pathan population in pakistan, How did KPK form etc. What was the role of the British in Durand line, also talk about significant political events for the pathan community. Including, war on terror. Mention osama bin laden incident too
i. Geography
1. General description and demographics. briefly include
2. Description of Rawalpindi.
ii. Historical Context Overview
1. Formation of Pakistan
2. History of the Pathan People Pakistan (From Afghanistan to Pakistan)
iii. Political Overview
1. Geography (where are people located and why)
2. Significant Political Events of the Country: formation of pakistan, war on terror, wars, political events that were significant in KPK. Some idea about the formation of pakistan, sub-continent, separation between east and west.
colonialism about the British rule
3. Significant Political Events of the Pathan People in Pakistan.

Biosocial Analysis. in terms of inequities, tailored toward the research question, with some analyzing. Social theory included here.

Use the WHO bio-social analysis toolkit to describe all the aspect of Fauji Colony. T
your arguments, your interpretation, we can use theories to explain what is happening. Your voice, social theory. Social forces, structural violence while discussing the traumatic experiences,
1. Socioeconomic and Political Analysis (Use social theory to explore societal structures)
Housing: Not regularized.
Governance: Lack of local govt body why?
Labor: Daily wagers, street hawkers
Public policies: Lack of public education and health system


i. Structural Forces (e.g., economic systems, political systems, ideologies, etc.)
1. How are the current challenges related to this issue impacted by historical, economic, and political processes?
ii. Systemic Forces (e.g., public policies, institutional practices, cultural norms, etc.)
1. What specific system and institutional mechanisms (e.g., policies, laws, norms, etcetera) are involved with this issue, and why?
2. Experiential Analyses (Use social theory to explore peoples experiences)
i. Explain how the complex structural inequities and social determinants of health mechanisms intersect around your topic area: polio vaccination refusals in Rawalpindi.
1. What are the social determinants relating to space and place that influence this outcome? (Wouldn’t this overlap with point 1?)


Are Social Bots Ethical

Topic 1-1

Are Social Bots Ethical?

 

You are an IT security specialist at your organization. The CEO has come to you saying he wants to incorporate the use of social bots on the organization’s website to reduce costs and ensure rapid customer response. You feel it is imperative that he understands the ethical concerns raised in using a social bot in this way. Write a brief report to your CEO discussing the ethical issues associated with the use of a social bot.

  1. Does use of a social bot preserve or enhance human dignity?
  2. Does use of a social bot preserve the autonomy of the human?
  3. Is the data processing required necessary and proportionate?
  4. Does use of a social bot uphold the common good?

Discuss the benefits of using a social bot on the organization’s website. Discuss the downsides of using a social bot on the organization’s website. How important do you feel the ethical issues are in making this decision? Make a final recommendation to the CEO and justify your recommendation.

 

Topic 1-2

Discuss the problem of the rapidly changing cybersecurity environment juxtaposed with the slow-moving government regulation and legal system in general.

Topic 3-1

State laws regarding data security vary considerably across states. This week you will learn about the data security laws in your own state, and by reading other students’ posts, you will be able to identify differences. Additionally, you will address how you would approach an ethical scenario related to data privacy.

Research on the Internet to find your Indiana’s data security laws, data breach notification laws, and data disposal laws. Provide a description of these laws for Indiana. Do you feel that the laws are adequate for protecting data in general and your personal data? Why or why not?

 

Topic 3-2

You are the IT department manager, and the CIO has asked you to install keyloggers on all of the organization computers so there is access to information about what staff are doing in the organization at all times. Is it ethical to install these keyloggers on company computers for this reason? Justify your response. Is it legal for the organization to install keyloggers on all of the computers? Describe the law you are using to support your response.

Topic 4-1

Intellectual Property

Use the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) website for case studies on intellectual property. Perform a Simple Search selecting the IP Right and the Focus (e.g., Copyright and Related Rights with focus of IP enforcement/infringement). Find a case study that interests you and summarize it for the class, including the country or countries involved. What did you feel was the most important element of this case study? What issues (legal or ethical) were raised in this case study? Explain how IP laws impacted the business (positively or negatively).

 

Topic 4-2

Cybercrime in Other Countries

Research on the Internet and identify a recent article on a cybercrime event that occurred in a country other than the United States. Summarize the event and discuss what the outcomes were related to that cybercrime. What laws or regulations were relevant to this cybercrime? Was legal action taken? If so, what was the outcome? Compare the cybercrime laws of the country where the event occurred to cybercrime laws in the U.S.

 

Topic 5-1

How to Compensate for the Negative Effects of Technology?

Discuss one or more criticisms of the way(s) technology has negatively affected society, families, schools, or the workplace. Share your recommendations of any formal or informal rules that can be implemented in society, families, schools, or the workplace to compensate for the detrimental effects.

 

Topic 5-2

The Ethical Issues of Emerging Technologies

Research on the Internet and identify an emerging technology. Discuss the ethical and legal issues surrounding that emerging technology. Identify at least one law that might be relevant to the new technology, and identify at least one ethical issue that the new technology raises.

 

Topic 6-1

Technology Dependence

Are there any ways in which most people are too dependent upon technology for tasks within their personal lives, schools, the workplace, or society? If so, what are the risks if technology malfunctions? What are your recommendations for risk mitigation?  

Are there areas in which technology is not being leveraged enough? If so, which areas? How should technology be applied in these situations?

 

Topic 6-2

What do you feel is the most important ethical concern related to technology in today’s world? Provide at least two examples. How do you feel this important ethical issue should be addressed? Who do you feel is responsible for addressing the ethical issue (government [federal or state], judicial system, organizations, individuals, or other)? What can you as an individual do to address this ethical issue?

 


Study In The Influence Of Relative Permeability In Production In Tight Gas Reservoir

Paper detalis:

2. Geological characteristics of tight gas reservoirs (should focuses in microstructure of tight gas reservoir)
3. relative permeability in tight gas reservoir( different types of permeability jail should be exhibited and discussed )
4. numerical model(In Chapter 4, you should describe the basic seepage theory of gas-water two-phase flow. It should also include numerical models built with Eclipse)
5. the influence of the permeability of jail on the production
references should be from the recent studies


Design A Logical And Physical Topographical Layout Of The Planned Network

Section 1: Infrastructure Document

1. Write a five to ten (5-10) page infrastructure document in which you:

a. Design a logical and physical topographical layout of the planned network through the use of graphical tools in Microsoft Word or Visio, or an open source alternative such as Dia. Note: The graphically depicted solution is not included in the required page length.

b. Illustrate the possible placement of servers including access paths to the Internet and firewalls. Note: Facility limitations, workstations, printers, routers, switches, bridges and access points should be considered in the illustration.

c. Explain the rationale for the logical and physical topographical layout of the planned network.

d. Create a comprehensive security policy for the company that will:

i. Protect the company infrastructure and assets by applying the principals of CIA. Note: CIA is a widely used benchmark for evaluation of information systems security, focusing on the three core goals of confidentiality, integrity and availability of information.

ii. Address ethical aspects related to employee behavior, contractors, password usage, and access to networked resources and information.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

This course requires use of Strayer Writing Standards (SWS). The format is different than other Strayer University courses. Please take a moment to review the SWS documentation for details.
Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.
Include charts or diagrams created in MS Visio or Dia as an appendix of the infrastructure document. All references to these diagrams must be included in the body of the infrastructure document.

Section 2: Revised Gantt Chart / Project Plan

Use Microsoft Project or an open source alternative, such as Open Project, to:

2. Update the Gantt chart or project plan (summary and detail) template, from Project Deliverable 3: Database and Programming Design, with all the project tasks.


The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

Demonstrate an understanding of existing and emerging information technologies and strategic impact on organizational operations.
Evaluate the issues and challenges associated with information technology integration.
Evaluate the ethical concerns that information technology solve or present in a global context.
Use technology and information resources to research issues in information technology.
Write clearly and concisely about strategic issues and practices in the information technology domain using proper writing mechanics and technical style conventions.


Leadership And Organisational Behaviour

Technical requirements:
Maximum length: 20 pages, 12 pt font, 1,5 spacing (excluding appendices). Kindly note that markers will only review the first 20 pages.
Your assignment must have an Introduction (including a brief background to the case study organisation) and a Conclusion. 
Referencing: Augmented Harvard referencing method

Choose any organization that you are familiar with and where the workers are no longer enthusiastic to give in their best to the organization. Outline and discuss the possible factors that have contributed to this lack of enthusiasm and critically evaluate how best the workers can be motivated to give in their best to the organization.

Your answer must integrate both relevant theory and organisational data/examples. (100%).          

 

Your answers to the above will be assessed in terms of the level of communication displayed, the insights and inferences drawn, and your ability to show the implications of the factors that you have assessed and discussed. An answer that merely gives a list of events that have happened or a synopsis of a situation, without showing insight into the reasons and results, will not earn good marks. Your method of referencing must consistently follow the augmented Harvard method.

 

Choose any organization of your choice and show clearly the various groups that exist within the organization. Critically evaluate five major group performance factors that may influence or affect the performance of the groups. Your answer must integrate both relevant theory and organisational data/examples. (100%).
Your answers to the above will be assessed in terms of the level of communication displayed, the insights and inferences drawn, and your ability to show the implications of the factors that you have assessed and discussed. An answer that merely gives a list of events that have happened or a synopsis of a situation, without showing insight into the reasons and results, will not earn good marks. Your method of referencing must consistently follow the augmented Harvard method.
 

Technical requirements:

Maximum length: 20 pages, 12 pt font, 1,5 spacing (excluding appendices). Kindly note that markers will only review the first 20 pages.

Your assignment must have an Introduction (including a brief background to the case study organisation) and a Conclusion.

Referencing: Augmented Harvard referencing method


ANALYSIS OF MACHINE LEARNING IN IMPROVING IOT SECURITY

It must be a publishable research paper,
It can be a survey or can be analysis of the previous research works.


How Can Major Media Companies Better Advocate For Their Content Creators On Social Media

Paper detalis:

1500–2000 words, double-spaced with one inch margins
12 point Times New Roman font
MLA (or APA) format (4 line heading upper left of first page, last name/pg # in upper right of each page)
MLA (or APA) formatted Works Cited page
Include an in-depth analysis and description of 4-6 stakeholder groups
6–8 sources SOURCES NEED TO BE WEBSITES (a minimum of 4 scholarly sources & 4 additional credible sources), all cited in MLA/APA format

 

Stakeholder Analysis and Report
Overview
This project asks you to examine an issue from a multitude of social perspectives by
undertaking a stakeholder analysis, a method of analysis common in and outside of
rhetorical studies. You’ll locate an issue, analyze multiple groups of stakeholders of that
issue, and share the results of that analysis in a report.
The Situation
You are a researcher that has been tasked with addressing a particular issue. Your goal
as a researcher is to formulate a solid understanding of said issue, especially the key
groups that care about/are affected by it (aka the stakeholders). You will identify the
multiple groups of stakeholders related to the issue, research them, and share your
findings in a report. You will later rely upon your report to craft and propose a plan to
actually address that issue (this is the groundwork for Project 3).
The Steps
There are several essential steps to completing this assignment. As you take these
steps, you will be prepared to succeed by class activities, assigned readings, support
documents, and one-on-one instruction.
Step 1: Decide an Issue
Choose an issue to focus on. When people or groups have differing beliefs about how
we should think about or act upon a topic, we have an issue. For example, the topic of
gender becomes an issue when companies/advocacy firms/individuals disagree about
how gender identities should be considered in the workplace. The topic of journaling
becomes an issue when writing teachers, students, and administrators have differing
perspectives on the role of journaling in the writing classroom. No matter what issue
you pick, you’ll also have to address it from multiple perspectives. In class, we will
discuss how to distinguish between a topic and an issue and brainstorm possible
examples.
Step 2: Undertake Preliminary Research and Locate Stakeholders
After choosing an issue, you’ll form a research question, which will guide your research
process. A good research question should provide opportunities for you to engage with
and enter into dialogue with multiple sources. We will spend time in class discussing
what makes a good research question as well as how to decide on a research question
based on your chosen issue. As you research, locate 4-6 groups who have stakes in this
topic. For example, stakeholders of journaling in the classroom might be teachers,
administrators, students, parents, scholars who publish about journaling, journal
companies, and influencers who post about journaling. Be sure to identify at least one
group each of primary, secondary, tertiary, and key stakeholders (these are groups that
will be discussed and defined in class).
Step 3: Research the Stakeholders
After you’ve identified the stakeholders involved with your issue, you’ll need to find out
more about them. Complete further research in order to know about who the
stakeholders are and what they believe about the issue. Focus on finding sources that
are representative of these groups’ thoughts, as well as on credible academic sources
that write about these groups. We will discuss how to rank different tiers of
stakeholders and how it relates to their interests in the issue.
Step 4: Analyze the Stakeholders
Determine how these stakeholder groups’ values and interests might motivate their
approaches to your issue—both in how that issue is currently treated and in how the
issue could be better treated. Consider those groups’ varying levels of power and
involvement.
Step 5: Craft Your Findings into a Report
After you’ve collected knowledge about the stakes and stakeholders, you will organize
your research in a report. You’ll learn in class about the report genre and how you can
use its conventions to present information concisely and effectively.
Minimum Requirements
● 1500–2000 words, double-spaced with one inch margins
● 12 point Times New Roman font
● MLA (or APA) format (4 line heading upper left of first page, last name/pg #
in upper right of each page)
● MLA (or APA) formatted Works Cited page
● Include an in-depth analysis and description of 4-6 stakeholder groups
● 6–8 sources (a minimum of 4 scholarly sources & 4 additional credible
sources), all cited in MLA/APA format


My Topic: Problems Of Higher Education

My Topic:

Problems of higher education.

Requirements to the research paper:

1. Length: at least 1500 words, excluding the Work Cited list.

2. Sources: at least three.

3. Format: MLA with in-text citations and Work Cited list.

4. Use font Times New Roman 12 or Calibri 11, double space, with 1” margin on allsides of the sheet.


Dissertation Chapter: Crystal Growth, Nonlinear Optical Materials And Third Harmonic Generation Application

Introduction on topics such as crystal growth, nonlinear optical materials and third harmonic generation application


Examine One Of South Carolina’s Party Platforms

Locate the websites for the major political parties in your state. Once you have located the party website, determine the elements of the party platform. Organize the following information into an essay. Include the correct citation of the party's website and any other references you used for this essay using current APA format.

1: Examine one of South Carolina’s party platforms.

Do you agree with the platform?
Why or why not?
What biblical principles apply to your position?

2: Examine the voting record of South Carolina's elected representative to state government.

Does the person vote in line with the party platform?
Give specific examples.

3: What views would you like to express to your representative?

4: How can you get involved with politics at the local level to support the candidate of your choice?

Include biblical citations


Application Of Social Cognitive Career Theory SCCT To Investigate Women Persistence In STEM Careers

The paper should address the following points: -
1. Factors affecting the persistence of women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics professions \\ 3 papers max
2. Justify the applicability of SCCT theory to predict career decisions, specifically, career persistence decision (workplace Stage NOT education stage) . by explaining SCCT model components \\ 6 papers
- Social contextual factors
- Self-efficacy
- Coping self-efficacy
- Expectation of outcomes
3. Address the relationship between barriers copıng efficacy and intention to persist in STEM careers
And suggest hypothesis based on the discussion \\ 6
Note
4. the paper focuses on STEM workplace NOT STEM education
3. 90% of references must be published in the last 7 years


Feeling Brown And Age, Race, Class And Sex

Read the attached documents Feeling Brown and Age, Race, Class and Sex. Know that this wiritng will be used to create a audio recording(I will do this from paper).

Your writing should identify the text’s problem, argument, and idea; explain something about how Feeling Brown is structured, and describe how it might intersects with Age, Race and Class piece. Your findings should help your peers choose whether or not to use the text on their next projects.

Analysis Criteria:
Organization: The argument (analysis) is clearly and logically structured, rather than rambling stream-of-consciousness, and allows the listener to understand the content in a way that serves the goals of the creator’s approach to the progression.

Evidence: Provide examples of evidence that the authors of the texts use to back up their arguments, and then explain how that evidence relates to your own analysis.

Content: Identify the central problem, idea, and argument in the text, either explicitly or implicitly, provided that all three are clear enough to ensure listeners don’t get lost

Content: Identifies intersections with our common texts readings


Microeconomics Essay Questions

The Assignments

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT 01

Microeconomics

Technical requirements:

Maximum length: 12 A4 pages, Times New Romans font type, 12-pt font size, 1.5 line spacing (excluding appendices). Kindly note that markers will only review the first 12 pages.

Referencing: Harvard method

Please note that this assignment is relatively time intensive. Be advised to study the relevant material and commence working on the assignment as early as possible.

Question1      [25 Marks]

When analysing the firm’s behaviour as a business economist, it is often important to understand the total revenue, costs and margin analysis.

Explain using a relevant diagram how the price faced by a profit-maximising competitive firm compare to its marginal cost? [5 Marks]

Explain using relevant graphs how profit-maximising competitive firm decide to shut down? [5 Marks]

When does a profit-maximising competitive firm decide to exit a market? [5 Marks]

As a business manager, use relevant diagrams as well as microeconomic theory, discuss why competitive firms stay in business if they make zero profit? [10 Marks]

Question 2     [25 Marks]

Business economists us the term tax incidence to refer to the distribution of a tax burden. As such, we can analyse the incidence of a tax by using the tools of supply and demand.

Suppose a government imposes a tax of ZAR1.00 per bottle on sellers of an industrial detergent.  Explain three dimensions in which you can explain the effects of this tax? What are the implications of such a tax? [12.5 Marks]

A government unveiled a new subsidy on public rail transport in a country. Critically analyse the three dimensions in which the effect of the subsidy can be felt by all the actors in the sector. [12.5 Marks]

Question 3     [25 Marks]

Monopolies cause inefficiencies and a lot of deadweight losses. In some cases, these inefficiencies can be mitigated through price discrimination by the monopolist, but at other times they call for policy makers to take an active role. Describe the ways through which policy makers can respond to the inefficiencies caused by monopolies in an economy. List potential problems associated with each of these policy response mechanisms.  [25 Marks]

*Referencing, language and layout (use the Harvard referencing system).

Marks will be deducted for not following the prescribed referencing style and failure to reference.

[TOTAL = 75 MARKS]

Your answers to the above will be assessed in terms of the level of communication displayed, the insights and inferences drawn, and your ability to show the implications of the factors that you have assessed and discussed. An answer that merely gives a list of events that have happened or a synopsis of a situation, without showing insight into the reasons and results, will not earn good marks. Your method of referencing must consistently follow the Harvard method and your layout must be neat and consistent.

Marking guidelines

See the mark allocation for each of the subsections above. The mark allocation should guide you on the length of your answers within the given 12 pages.

Focus, logic and structure play a critical part in answering any assignment question. Focus on answering each question asked. Your answer should have a clear, logical structure and your arguments should be systematically developed and presented. Sentences and paragraphs should follow one another logically. Avoid fragmentation (a collection of disjointed comments on the literature) and ensure that your answer contains adequate analytical content. You will be assessed on the relevance and depth of insight reflected by your discussion, analysis, findings and reasoning.

 

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT 02

Macroeconomics

Technical requirements:

Maximum length: 12 A4 pages, Times New Roman font type, 12-pt font size, 1.5 line spacing (excluding appendices). Kindly note that markers will only review the first 12 pages.

Referencing: Harvard method

Questions 1 [45 marks]                                                                  

As a business economist, critically analyse how changes in the world price of oil affect the amount of frictional unemployment in a country.  [15 Marks]

In response to unemployment challenges in an economy, the government put in place several macroeconomic policies. Discuss at a theoretical level how public policies such unemployment benefits and tax incentives can affect the employers, government and the level of unemployment, taking into account the age groups, skills endowments and substitution effects of the various workers in an economy. [20 Marks]

Explain why flexible labour markets are such an important element in supply side policies? [10 Marks]

Questions 2 [30 marks]       

Assume the economy is in a recession. Explain how each of the following policies would affect consumption, investment and national income (GDP). In each case, indicate any direct effects, any effects resulting from changes in the macroeconomic variables and the overall effect in the economy. If there are conflicting effects making the answer ambiguous, say so.

How  fiscal policy influences aggregate demand and how these can be used to expand the economy? [15 Marks]

How monetary policy influences aggregate demand and how these can be used to expand the economy? [15 Marks]

References

Layout and bibliography (use the Harvard referencing system) must be consistent.

[TOTAL = 75 MARKS]

Marking guidelines

Please pay attention to the mark allocation for each of the subsections above.

Focus, logic and structure play a critical part in answering any assignment question. Your assignment should be focused on answering each question asked. Your answer should have a clear logical structure and your arguments should be systematically developed and presented. Sentences and paragraphs should follow one another logically. A collection of more or less disjointed comments on the literature is commonly referred to as “fragmentation”. Avoid fragmentation and ensure that your answer contains adequate analytical content. You will be assessed on the relevance, depth and insight that your discussion, analysis, findings and reasoning reflect.

REFERENCING

It is customary in academic discourse to acknowledge the work that you have drawn from.  Although quotations have their role and a few well-chosen quotations may enhance your analysis, they should never replace your own explanation. We are primarily interested in establishing if you can present the ideas in your own words. If you cite a quotation, use quotation marks, make sure that it appears exactly as in its  original state and provide a reference in the way indicated below.

Whenever you mention someone else's ideas or directly quote his or her words, you should provide a reference. There are various ways of doing this, but it is recommended that you acquaint yourself with the Harvard method as it is the most widely used in academic circles. According to this reference system, footnotes are not used to provide the full bibliographical particulars of the referred source, as is customary in other systems. Instead, the bare essentials to identify the source, such as the name of the author, the year of publication and the page reference (where appropriate) are given in the text itself, making use of brackets.

Consider the following example:

Keynes (1936:129) is of the opinion that unemployment is caused by insufficient demand.

Another example:

Unemployment is caused by insufficient demand (Keynes, 1936:129).

Snowdon and Vane (2005:70-75) distinguish between three important interpretations of Keynes.

The reader is, thus referred to the bibliography (which should appear at the end of the document) for the full particulars of Keynes (1936) or Snowdon and Vane (2005), should he or she wishes to consult the source.

Note that it is not necessary to give all the authors' names in the text when there are more than two authors. The abbreviation et al. indicates that there are also other authors. The important point here is that the Harvard method requires you to add a detailed bibliography at the end of the document. In this bibliography, all the authors' names will be listed. The precise rules of how to present a bibliography follow below.

Basic rules for presenting a bibliography

The bibliography must be arranged alphabetically according to author's surname. The date of publication appears immediately after the author's name. If the bibliographical entry is a book, the name of the book must be underlined or italicised. The place of publication and the publisher's name must be specified. If the entry is a journal article, the title of the article should be included and the name of the journal must be provided. The name of the journal must be underlined or italicised. The volume and issue of the journal and the page numbers must also be provided.

The following are examples of bibliographical entries. We have used italics instead of underlining the names of books and journals - you may use either system.

Bibliography

Keynes, JM. l936. The general theory of employment, interest and money. London: Macmillan.

Snowdon, B & Vane, H. 2005. Modern macroeconomics. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Solow, RM. 1975. The intelligent citizen's guide to inflation. The Public Interest 38:30-66.

Although numerous variations are current in academic literature, we recommend that you present your bibliography in exactly the way as given by the above examples.

The Assignments

 

Please note that this assignment is relatively time intensive. Be advised to study the relevant material and commence working on the assignment as early as possible.

 

Question1      [25 Marks]

 

When analysing the firm’s behaviour as a business economist, it is often important to understand the total revenue, costs and margin analysis.

 

  1. Explain using a relevant diagram how the price faced by a profit-maximising competitive firm compare to its marginal cost? [5 Marks]
  2. Explain using relevant graphs how profit-maximising competitive firm decide to shut down? [5 Marks]
  3. When does a profit-maximising competitive firm decide to exit a market? [5 Marks]
  4. As a business manager, use relevant diagrams as well as microeconomic theory, discuss why competitive firms stay in business if they make zero profit? [10 Marks]

 

Question 2     [25 Marks]

 

Business economists us the term tax incidence to refer to the distribution of a tax burden. As such, we can analyse the incidence of a tax by using the tools of supply and demand.

 

  1. Suppose a government imposes a tax of ZAR1.00 per bottle on sellers of an industrial detergent.  Explain three dimensions in which you can explain the effects of this tax? What are the implications of such a tax? [12.5 Marks]
  2. A government unveiled a new subsidy on public rail transport in a country. Critically analyse the three dimensions in which the effect of the subsidy can be felt by all the actors in the sector. [12.5 Marks]

 

Question 3     [25 Marks]

 

Monopolies cause inefficiencies and a lot of deadweight losses. In some cases, these inefficiencies can be mitigated through price discrimination by the monopolist, but at other times they call for policy makers to take an active role. Describe the ways through which policy makers can respond to the inefficiencies caused by monopolies in an economy. List potential problems associated with each of these policy response mechanisms.  [25 Marks]

 

*Referencing, language and layout (use the Harvard referencing system).

Marks will be deducted for not following the prescribed referencing style and failure to reference.

 

[TOTAL = 75 MARKS]

 

Your answers to the above will be assessed in terms of the level of communication displayed, the insights and inferences drawn, and your ability to show the implications of the factors that you have assessed and discussed. An answer that merely gives a list of events that have happened or a synopsis of a situation, without showing insight into the reasons and results, will not earn good marks. Your method of referencing must consistently follow the Harvard method and your layout must be neat and consistent.

Marking guidelines

See the mark allocation for each of the subsections above. The mark allocation should guide you on the length of your answers within the given 12 pages.

 

Focus, logic and structure play a critical part in answering any assignment question. Focus on answering each question asked. Your answer should have a clear, logical structure and your arguments should be systematically developed and presented. Sentences and paragraphs should follow one another logically. Avoid fragmentation (a collection of disjointed comments on the literature) and ensure that your answer contains adequate analytical content. You will be assessed on the relevance and depth of insight reflected by your discussion, analysis, findings and reasoning.

Questions 1 [45 marks]                                                                  

  1. As a business economist, critically analyse how changes in the world price of oil affect the amount of frictional unemployment in a country.  [15 Marks]
  2. In response to unemployment challenges in an economy, the government put in place several macroeconomic policies. Discuss at a theoretical level how public policies such unemployment benefits and tax incentives can affect the employers, government and the level of unemployment, taking into account the age groups, skills endowments and substitution effects of the various workers in an economy. [20 Marks]
  3. Explain why flexible labour markets are such an important element in supply side policies? [10 Marks]

Questions 2 [30 marks]       

Assume the economy is in a recession. Explain how each of the following policies would affect consumption, investment and national income (GDP). In each case, indicate any direct effects, any effects resulting from changes in the macroeconomic variables and the overall effect in the economy. If there are conflicting effects making the answer ambiguous, say so.

  1. How  fiscal policy influences aggregate demand and how these can be used to expand the economy? [15 Marks]
  2. How monetary policy influences aggregate demand and how these can be used to expand the economy? [15 Marks]

References

Layout and bibliography (use the Harvard referencing system) must be consistent.

 

[TOTAL = 75 MARKS]

 

Marking guidelines

Please pay attention to the mark allocation for each of the subsections above.

Focus, logic and structure play a critical part in answering any assignment question. Your assignment should be focused on answering each question asked. Your answer should have a clear logical structure and your arguments should be systematically developed and presented. Sentences and paragraphs should follow one another logically. A collection of more or less disjointed comments on the literature is commonly referred to as “fragmentation”. Avoid fragmentation and ensure that your answer contains adequate analytical content. You will be assessed on the relevance, depth and insight that your discussion, analysis, findings and reasoning reflect.

 

  1. REFERENCING

It is customary in academic discourse to acknowledge the work that you have drawn from.  Although quotations have their role and a few well-chosen quotations may enhance your analysis, they should never replace your own explanation. We are primarily interested in establishing if you can present the ideas in your own words. If you cite a quotation, use quotation marks, make sure that it appears exactly as in its  original state and provide a reference in the way indicated below.

Whenever you mention someone else's ideas or directly quote his or her words, you should provide a reference. There are various ways of doing this, but it is recommended that you acquaint yourself with the Harvard method as it is the most widely used in academic circles. According to this reference system, footnotes are not used to provide the full bibliographical particulars of the referred source, as is customary in other systems. Instead, the bare essentials to identify the source, such as the name of the author, the year of publication and the page reference (where appropriate) are given in the text itself, making use of brackets.

Consider the following example:

Keynes (1936:129) is of the opinion that unemployment is caused by insufficient demand.

Another example:

Unemployment is caused by insufficient demand (Keynes, 1936:129).

Snowdon and Vane (2005:70-75) distinguish between three important interpretations of Keynes.

The reader is, thus referred to the bibliography (which should appear at the end of the document) for the full particulars of Keynes (1936) or Snowdon and Vane (2005), should he or she wishes to consult the source.

Note that it is not necessary to give all the authors' names in the text when there are more than two authors. The abbreviation et al. indicates that there are also other authors. The important point here is that the Harvard method requires you to add a detailed bibliography at the end of the document. In this bibliography, all the authors' names will be listed. The precise rules of how to present a bibliography follow below.

Basic rules for presenting a bibliography

The bibliography must be arranged alphabetically according to author's surname. The date of publication appears immediately after the author's name. If the bibliographical entry is a book, the name of the book must be underlined or italicised. The place of publication and the publisher's name must be specified. If the entry is a journal article, the title of the article should be included and the name of the journal must be provided. The name of the journal must be underlined or italicised. The volume and issue of the journal and the page numbers must also be provided.

The following are examples of bibliographical entries. We have used italics instead of underlining the names of books and journals - you may use either system.

Bibliography

Keynes, JM. l936. The general theory of employment, interest and money. London: Macmillan.

Snowdon, B & Vane, H. 2005. Modern macroeconomics. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Solow, RM. 1975. The intelligent citizen's guide to inflation. The Public Interest 38:30-66.

Although numerous variations are current in academic literature, we recommend that you present your bibliography in exactly the way as given by the above examples.

 


Governments Solving Efficiency Problems

Identify and explain three examples of governments solving efficiency problems and three examples of governments solving equity problems. These examples should be a real situation with an appropriately identified and explain policy tool. With each of these examples, identify and explain the situation or circumstance that would be most likely create a government failure and explain why.


Qualitative Group Research Project: COVID-19 Crisis

Assignment Structure and content

This assignment has the form of a written essay.

The structure of the essay is as follows:

A. Title page with clearly stated title of the qualitative group assignment, authors, course, date and place

B. Body text

C. References

D. Appendixes

Body text

1. Describe from a qualitative perspective the research problem based on the text proved below and on academic research found in the four articles (extra articles are allowed). Incorporate the research aim, research question and subquestions. The information from the academic articles should be synthesised and used to write the introductory section of the essay.

2. Develop a corresponding theoretical framing for the research question (describe the examined phenomenon, define the sensitising concepts, explain the theoretical lens and provide the main points of critique/gaps found in literature).

3. Describe the applied research methodology for data collection and data analysis and particularly: a. Explain the sampling universe and inclusion and exclusion criteria to explain which participants are included in the research and explain why b. Develop the interview protocol including an interview questionnaire consisting of four questions and do as follows: i. Describe the type of interview that is used in the assignment ii. Explain why this type of interview is used in relation to the research question and research objectives iii. Describe how the interview questionnaire is structured iv. Describe how the interview questions are formulated to avoid bias

4. Collect interview data from 4 respondents and apply the interview questionnaire and the interview techniques. Place the interview transcripts in the appendix

5. Analyse the collected data (using coding) and present the findings

6. Provide conclusions and recommendations.

Information

Topic of assignment

The COVID-19 pandemic has generated an unpresented economic and social crisis. It is reported that the COVID-19 crisis currently challengesthe survival and growth of the majority of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Europe but also in the Netherlands. The United Nations for Conference for Trade and Development (UNCTAD) predicts that on the medium- and long-term SMEs will suffer from economic recession reduced income and unemployment. For example, over 20% of SMEs in the Netherlands foresee the bankruptcy if the corona crisis persists. The isolation and social distancing measures undertaken by many governments during the first wave of COVID-19 have undermined the existing SMEs’ operations. It is suggested that entrepreneurship at the national level is challenged by several COVID-19-related obstacles which comprise among others: administrative burdens, governmental restrictions, regulatory uncertainties, obstacles in periods of pandemic which are tailored to the entrepreneur, such as access to healthcare and paid sick leave and finally obstacles due to the limited access to funding. In order to overcome the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, SMEs should be able to rely on a well-functioning supply chain and sufficient production factors, such as labour. The main obstacle lies in the demand side because consumers even when the COVID-19 subsides, will remain cautious in their purchasing and consuming strategy. The SMEs need to adjust and to adapt to the new circumstances to remain in business. Besides the existences of the foregoing challenges, SMEs can use the health crisis to contribute to innovation, e.g. increasing digitalisation of society, that have occurred as a result of COVID-19. Nyenrode Business Universiteit (Nyenrode) is a private university which focuses predominantly on the promotion of entrepreneurship in education and in research. Entrepreneurship is in the core of Nyenrode’s mission. Furthermore, Nyenrode aims to equip young entrepreneurs and future leaders with the necessary knowledge to deal with barriers to entrepreneurship generated in the time of pandemic. Key players at NBU are therefore keen on learning and acquiring an in depth understanding of obstacles to entrepreneurship due to the COVID-19 crisis. Also, they are interested in understanding the reasons behind the existence of these barriers.

You are asked to explore the issue from a qualitative perspective. All of the following academic articles must be used in the development of the assignment

Kuckertz, A. et al. (2020). Startups in times of crisis - A rapid response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Business Venturing Insights, 13, e00169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbvi.2020.e00169

Zahra, S. A. (2020). International entrepreneurship in the post Covid world. Journal of World Business, 101143. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2020.101143

Kouriloff, M. (2000). Exploring Perceptions of A Priori Barriers to Entrepreneurship: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 25(2), 59-80. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F104225870002500204

Juergensen, J., Guimón, J., & Narula, R. (2020). European SMEs amidst the COVID-19 crisis: assessing impact and policy responses. Journal of Industrial and Business Economics, 47(3), 499-510. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40812-020-00169-4

Central phenomenon:

Changes in employee mental wellbeing in regards to changes to their working environment (such as working from home) as a result of the pandemic.

Research problem: The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of the changes in employee mental well being for employees of SME’s. At this stage in the research, the employee's mental well being in regards to their remote working conditions will be generally defined as mental wellbeing.

Research question: How is the mental wellbeing of employees at SMEs affected by the remote working conditions needed as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic? Sub-questions: What defines ‘remote working conditions’? How have job and financial insecurities impacted employee’s mental wellbeing? How have these changes impacted the performance for SMEs? What is the vision of employees in regards to physical presence after the pandemic crisis is over?


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